Formed before European contact; arguably as early as 31 August 1142, though also likely sometime in the 15th to the 17 гасыр.
The en:Treaty of Canandaigua, signed in 1794, established relations between the United States government and the Iroquois; the treaty is still in force, though the Confederacy is no longer effectively an independent nation.
The original Cherokee Nation was unified from an interrelated society of city-states in the late 18 гасыр. They enjoyed relatively peaceful relations with the Spanish, British, French, and later (with the exception of the Chickamauga factions), to the USA.
After independence from the Kingdom of Spain, Mexico decided on a monarchical system of government, backed by Mexican conservatives and some liberals. A European prince was sought, but Spain prohibited any from taking the throne. Agustín I, in the meantime, was proclaimed emperor of Mexico in 1821.
Southeastern en:United States of America, from en:Texas to en:Virginia. Political factions in the "border states" of en:Kentucky and en:Missouri declared themselves parts of the Confederacy and controlled small portions of those states early in the war. The major Indian tribes in Oklahoma signed an alliance with the Confederacy, and participated in its military efforts.
Maximiliano's rule was blemished by constant conflict. Liberals found backing from United States after the Civil War in 1865, and the French withdrew in 1867, leaving Maximilian and his supporters on their own. Maximilian was captured and, on orders of Benito Juárez, executed in the Cerro de las Campanas near en:Querétaro.
By late spring 1868, the Republic had been informed by the Colonial Office in London that its government had no power. The Province of Manitoba was organized within Canada on 12 May 1870, and promised the Metis people of Manitoba an autonomous government.
Hoping to avoid paying a recently introduced tax on new mining claims, in April 1850 residents of the town of Rough and Ready drew up articles of secession, forming the "en:Great Republic of Rough and Ready."
The new country lasted only three months, until an Independence Day change of heart convinced the miners to vote themselves back into the union.
Last Mayan kingdom conquered on 13 March 1697 by the Spaniards, and later the British in Belize.
Mayan political structures tended to center around the person of the king; even when one king conquered another, the result was usually a tributary arrangement, and the identity of the conquered kingdom persisted.
Declared independence 1840, due to dislike of centralization of Mexican government.
Resolved differences with central government and rejoined partially to Mexico in December 1843 with self-government. Rejoined Mexico to obtain assistance against Mayans in the en:Caste War of Yucatán, treaty signed 17 August 1848.
Created 1819 during wars for independence from Spain.
Broke apart in 1830, formally dissolved in 1831. Successor states were Colombia, which included present-day Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador.
Its official name was República de Colombia: there never was a state called "Greater Colombia" or "Gran Colombia"; this is an addition by later historians in order to distinguish it from the present-day Republic of Colombia. Although the literal translation is "Great Colombia", historians have traditionally chosen to translate it as "Greater Colombia".Калып:Citation needed
Another conflict, the en:War of the Pacific followed in the 1870s. The Chileans defeated the Bolivians and Peruvians. Chile annexed the Arica and Tacna provinces in 1881, but returned Tacna to Peru in 1928.
en:British America – British interests in North America (now generally parts of the USA and Canada) until 1783 when Britain accepted the USA as independent. The en:Maritime Provinces of en:Canada are the descending colonies of what was then the British Colonies of America.
Ireland before the British incorporated them in 1800, and when Ireland became an autonomous country in 1919, it was known as the "Four Provinces of Ireland" before 1922, when the en:Irish Free State was established.
en:United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1822) (Reino Unido de Portugal, Brasil e Algarves/Royaume-Uni de Portugal, Brésil et des Algarves) created in 1815 when Brazil was upgraded to the rank of Kingdom, once the Portuguese royal family was living in en:Rio de Janeiro since 1809. This Country was dissolved in 1822 when Brazil became independent.
en:West Indies Federation – Federal state created by the United Kingdom in 1958 which encompassed most of its possessions in the Caribbean. The federation collapsed after en:Jamaica voted to separate.
en:Burma – Renamed en:Myanmar in 1989. The United States and some other nations do not recognize the ruling military junta of Myanmar and hence do not accept the legitimacy of the name change, continuing to use the name Burma in official communications.
Ivory Coast – requested to be known as its untranslated name of en:Côte d'Ivoire in 1986. (Many languages keep on using their own translations of the name: Spanish: Costa de Marfil, Portuguese: Costa do Marfim, German: Elfenbeinküste, Dutch: Ivoorkust, Estonian: Elevandiluurannik)
en:Republic of Formosa – Lasted from May to October 1895 after the island was ceded by China to Japan and the local gentry and officials declared a tributary republic in a failed attempt to avert Japanese annexation.
the en:German Democratic Republic (East Germany) in 1990 joined the Federal Republic of Germany (until then known as 'West Germany'), but not as a whole, divided in five newly recreated states (Bundesländer).
The en:Kingdom of Hawaii was unified in 1810 under en:Kamehameha I, and was recognized by the United States as an independent nation from 1826 until January 17, 1893. Following the overthrow of the monarchy it existed as the independent en:Republic of Hawaii until annexation by the United States in 1898. Became the Territory, and then the State, of en:Hawaii.
Newfoundland – Existed as an autonomous colony of the United Kingdom from 1855 to 1907, then a sovereign en:dominion until 1934 when it reverted to a crown colony. It joined in en:Confederation with Canada in 1949.
en:Tibet – A unified Tibetan empire was created in the 8 гасыр. Mongol conquests in the 13 гасыр made Tibet part of a Mongol-ruledChinese empire, and four centuries later the Manchu-ruled en:Qing Dynasty formed a patron-priest relationship with Tibet's spiritual rulers. In 1914, China refused to ratify a treaty which would have granted China en:suzerainty over "Inner Tibet" and "Outer Tibet," establishing direct rule over the former and leaving the latter autonomous. In 1950, a Chinese army invaded Tibet. The region remains under Chinese control.
максимальная территория: Иран, Ирак, Азербайджан, Армения, Афганистан, восточная часть современной Турции и часть нынешней Индии, Сирии, Пакистана; частично Кавказ, Центральная Азия, Аравийский полуостров, Египет, Иордания, Израиль и Палестина
с 3 ноября 1912 года — протекторат Российской Империи,
5 ноября 1913 года Россия признала сюзеренитет Китая над Монголией;
25 мая 1915 года трехсторонний российско-китайско-монгольский договор об автономии Монголии в составе Китая
подконтрольная Грузии территория, на которой, по мнению Грузии, находилось легитимное правительство Абхазии, вынужденное, ввиду неподконтрольности большей части территории Абхазии центральным властям Грузии, располагаться в Кодорском ущелье.
↑The Simla Convention (1914) and its appendix identified Tibet as "under the suzerainty of China.....[forming] part of Chinese territory;" China refused to ratify however and instead Britain and Tibet alone signed and ratified three treaties recognizing Tibet's autonomy but not China's claims [Article 2, Note 2]. 
↑Encyclopedia Iranica статья Albania: « It has been supposed that the unification took place towards the end of the 2nd century B.C., by reason of the wars waged between the Arsacid Mithridates II and Artavazd I, king of Armenia»
↑Всемирная история. Т.2. М., 1956. С.413—417:"Государство в Албании возникло, повидимому, в середине I в. до н. э. на основе албанского племенного союза."
↑См. ru:Могулия, даты правления последнего хана Могулии Мухаммад Мумин-хан (Акбаш-хана)